Sunday, December 4, 2022

Is Diabetes A Disease Or Disorder

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Yellow Reddish Or Brown Patches On Your Skin

What is Diabetes?

Necrobiosis Lipoidica

This skin condition often begins as small raised solid bumps that look like pimples. As it progresses, these bumps turn into patches of swollen and hard skin. The patches can be yellow, reddish, or brown.

You may also notice:

  • The surrounding skin has a shiny porcelain-like appearance
  • You can see blood vessels
  • The skin is itchy and painful
  • The skin disease goes through cycles where it is active, inactive, and then active again

necrobiosis lipodica.

Take action
  • Get tested for diabetes, if you have not been diagnosed.
  • Work with your doctor to better control your diabetes.
  • See a dermatologist about your skin. Necorbiosis lipodica is harmless, but it can lead to complications.

Q: Can People With Diabetes Donate Blood

Taking oral medications and most forms of insulin to maintain that control is okay, but if you have ever used bovine insulin made from cattle from the United Kingdom since 1980, you are ineligible, because of a concern about Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, also known as mad cow disease. If you’re in doubt about your blood sugar level or what insulin you have taken, check with your doctor.

Demographic And Phenotypic Data

Ethnical information, marriage status, psychosocial situation, age, and number of children were assessed in the bipolar group. Additionally, age of onset, polarity of first episode, number of episodes, rapid cycling, suicide attempts, and number of hospitalizations were recorded. Furthermore, current medication was assessed as well as information about alcohol and illegal drug use. Weight and height BMI and waisthip ratio as well as blood pressure were measured. The demographic and phenotypic data are displayed in Tables 16. 27% of the bipolar patients fulfilled the NCEP ATP III criteria of a metabolic syndrome .

Table 4 T2D and pre-diabetes in bipolar patients and controls.

Table 5 Glucose and lipid metabolism data.

Table 6 Comparison diabetic and diabetic bipolar patients.

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More Information On Genetics

If you would like to learn more about the genetics of all forms of diabetes, the National Institutes of Health has published The Genetic Landscape of Diabetes. This free online book provides an overview of the current knowledge about the genetics of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as well other less common forms of diabetes. The book is written for health care professionals and for people with diabetes interested in learning more about the disease.

When To See A Dermatologist

Could The Type 2 Diabetes Be An Autoimmune Disease?

Diabetes can cause many other skin problems. Most skin problems are harmless, but even a minor one can become serious in people who have diabetes. A board-certified dermatologist can recognize skin problems due to diabetes and help you manage them.

Are all dermatologists board certified?

No. See what it takes to become board certified.

ImagesImage 1: Image Courtesy of Clark C. Otley, MD. All Rights Reserved

Images 3, 7, 8, 9: Used with permission of the American Academy of Dermatology National Library of Dermatologic Teaching Slides.

Image 2 from DermNetNZ

Some images used with permission of Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

ReferencesCohen Sabban, EN. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus from A to Z. Focus session presented at: 74th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology March 4-8, 2016 Washington D.C.

Duff M, Demidova O, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Clinical Diabetes. 2015 33:40-8.

Kalus AA, Chien AJ, et al. Diabetes mellitus and other endocrine disorders. In: Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, et al. Fitzpatricks Dermatology in General Medicine . McGraw Hill Medical, New York, 2008:1461-70.

McKinley-Grant L, Warnick M, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease. In: Kelly AP and Taylor S. Dermatology for Skin of Color. . The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. China, 2009:481-4.

Morgan AJ and Schwartz RA. Diabetic dermopathy: A subtle sign with grave implications. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 58:447-51.

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What Is Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome develops more slowly than diabetic ketoacidosis. It occurs in patients with Type 2 diabetes, especially the elderly and usually occurs when patients are ill or stressed.If you have HHNS, you blood glucose level is typically greater than 600 mg/dL. Symptoms include frequent urination, drowsiness, lack of energy and dehydration. HHNS is not associated with ketones in the blood. It can cause coma or death. Youll need to be treated in the hospital.

Ketogenic Diet For Diabetes: Benefits Risks Tips And More

But, she adds, people who have insulin resistance are typically trying to manage a lot of diet and lifestyle changes at once to help control their blood sugar, so she doesnt recommend the rigors of a ketogenic diet as a long-term solution. Additionally, if you are taking oral diabetes medications, you may be at risk of potentially serious complications, like hypoglycemia.

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What Are Some Common Warning Signs Of Bulimia And Bed

Some of the frequent warns signs of an eating disorder such as bulimia or BED include:

  • Extremely high A1C test results
  • Frequent bouts of poor blood sugar control
  • Anxiety about or avoidance of being weighed
  • Frequent requests to switch meal-planning approaches
  • Frequent and severe low or high blood sugar levels
  • Widely fluctuating blood sugar levels, with no obvious explanation
  • Bingeing with food or alcohol at least twice a week
  • Exercising more than necessary to stay fit
  • Severe family stress

Darker Area Of Skin That Feels Like Velvet

Diabetes and Kidney Disease

A dark patch of velvety skin on the back of your neck, armpit, groin, or elsewhere could mean that you have too much insulin in your blood. This is often a sign of prediabetes.The medical name for this skin condition is acanthosis nigricans.

Acanthosis Nigricans

Often causing darker skin in the creases of the neck, AN may be the first sign that someone has diabetes.

Take action
  • Get tested for diabetes

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Understanding Diabetes From Other Causes

In addition to type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes, a small minority of people develop specific types of diabetes due to other causes. This includes:

  • Monogenic diabetes syndromes, such as neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young
  • Diseases of the exocrine pancreas, such as cystic fibrosis and pancreatitis
  • Drug or chemical-induced diabetes, such as with glucocorticoid use, in the treatment of HIV/AIDS or after organ transplantation

Because these types of diabetes are rare, they are often misdiagnosed as other types of diabetes. You can learn more about these types of diabetes in the Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes section in the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. If you think you might have one of these types, be sure to talk with your doctor.

T2d As An Inflammatory Condition

Studies investigating the relation between inflammation and T2D have coalesced sufficient data implicating the role of inflammation towards the development of insulin resistance and pathogenesis of T2D. Metabolism and immune system were conventionally regarded as two distinctive mechanisms governing nutrient disposal and body defense, respectively. Typically, little was known about the coordination and interplay between these two systems. However, present research has led to combining these distinct entities as studies perceive pathological activation of the immune system as a regulatory mechanism associated with multiple disorders underlying the metabolic syndrome. Potency of steroid hormones as immune suppressors and hyperglycemic inductors, metabolic alterations associated with pyrexia, wasting syndrome initiated by chronic infections and of late, markers of acute-phase response have been associated with insulin resistance, insulin secretion defects, T2D and vascular complications of T2D.

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Thyroid Disease Facts From The American Thyroid Association

  • More than 12 percent of the U.S. population will develop a thyroid condition
  • An estimated 20 million Americans have some form of thyroid disease.
  • Up to 60 percent of those with thyroid disease are unaware of their condition.
  • Women are five to eight times more likely than men to have thyroid problems.
  • One in eight women will develop a thyroid disorder during her lifetime.
  • Undiagnosed thyroid disease may put patients at risk for certain serious conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and infertility.
  • Most thyroid diseases are life-long conditions that can be managed with medical attention.

For more information, visit the American Thyroid Association website at: www.thyroid.org .

Why Are Eating Disorders Associated With Diabetes

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Eating disorders are associated with type 2 diabetes because people with bulimia or BED tend to binge on foods that are high in sugar and fat, and low in protein. Even though bulimics purge food, some food and nutrients will remain in the body, which can cause high blood sugar levels. While unhealthy eating habits are not one of the main causes of type 2 diabetes, they can be a significant contributing factor.

A recent study of more than 2,300 patients who were being treated at an eating disorder clinic in Finland showed that bulimia and BED were associated with diabetes, both in increased incidence and prevalence .

When compared with a control group , the lifetime prevalence rate of diabetes among people with either bulimia or BED was 5.2% vs. 1.7% among the control group. At the end of the 16-year study, 33% of patients treated for BED had type 2 diabetes and 4% of those with bulimia had type 2 diabetes.

The researchers concluded: Our findings provide strong support for the association between type 2 diabetes and clinically significant binge eating.

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Questions To Ask Your Doctor

  • How did I get diabetes?
  • If I have diabetes, will my children develop it, too?
  • Will I need to take insulin?
  • If I dont have a family history of diabetes, can I still get it?
  • Can your diabetes get worse even if you do everything right?
  • Can I prevent gestational diabetes?
  • If I had gestational diabetes while pregnant, will I get type 2 diabetes later?
  • Will the babies of a mom with gestational diabetes develop diabetes?
  • How can I tell the difference between Charcot foot and gout in my foot?

How Often Do I Need To See My Primary Diabetes Healthcare Professional

In general, if you are being treated with insulin shots, you should see your doctor at least every three to four months. If you are treated with pills or are managing diabetes through diet, you should be seen at least every four to six months. More frequent visits may be needed if your blood sugar is not controlled or if complications of diabetes are worsening.

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Lowering Your Type 2 Diabetes Risk

The most effective ways to lower your risk of Type 2 diabetes are by making smarter food choices and increasing your physical activity. Experts recommend at least 30 minutes of activity each day. Of course, it is not always easy to make these changes overnight. The American Diabetes Association recommends making these changes over time so you can adopt them as a lifestyle.

Here are some tips for making small, sustainable changes:

  • Set realistic goals and start slow.
  • Set a timeframe to complete them.
  • Keep goals specific.
  • Reward yourself for accomplishing goals.

One misconception about lowering your risk by losing weight is that weight loss has to be significant, such as 50 to 100 pounds. The truth is losing as little as 10 pounds can have a dramatic impact on health and diabetes risk.

No Matter Where You Are In Your Fight Heres Where You Need To Be

What is diabetes mellitus? | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Whether youve been newly diagnosed, have been fighting against type 1 or type 2 diabetes for a while, or are helping a loved one, youve come to the right place. This is the start of gaining a deeper understanding of how you can live a healthier lifewith all the tools, health tips, and food ideas you need. Wherever youre at with your diabetes, know that you have options and that you dont have to be held back. You can still live your best life. All you have to do is take action and stick with it.

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Can Diabetes Be Prevented Or Avoided

Talk to your doctor about your risk factors for diabetes. Although you may not be able to change all of them, you can make changes to significantly lower your risk.

  • Exercise and weight control. Exercising and maintaining a healthy weight can reduce your risk of diabetes. Any amount of activity is better than none. Try to exercise for 30 to 60 minutes most days of the week. Always talk with your doctor before starting an exercise program.
  • Diet. A diet high in fat, calories, and cholesterol increases your risk of diabetes. A poor diet can lead to obesity and other health problems. A healthy diet is high in fiber and low in fat, cholesterol, salt, and sugar. Also, remember to watch your portion size. How much you eat is just as important as what you eat.

Activation Of Inflammasome In T2d

Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes in the intracellular machinery responsible for production of bioactive IL-1 in response to multiple stimuli. NLRP is a subfamily of Nod-like receptors containing a central nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain with flanking C-terminal leucine-rich repeats and N-terminal caspase recruitment or pyrin domains. The NOD-like receptor family, the pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome is in a pathway that controls the production of IL-1 and IL-18. Unlike TLR, a potential role of NLR in metabolic abnormalities has not been extensively investigated. NLRP forms a constituent of the inflammasomes responsible for maturation and release of IL-1, and thus is a relevant candidate for metabolic disorders and T2D. NLRP3-dependent activation of inflammaosomes in diabetes was proposed by studies implicating the release of IL-1 as a consequence of elevated levels of glucose, FFAs and human islet amylopeptide . However, the effective metabolites involved in activation of inflammasomes are not clearly elucidated yet .

Activation of inflammasomes in type 2 diabetes into active IL-1. -cell-derived IL-1 promote the release of chemokines and recruitment of macrophages that are activated by human islet amyloid polypeptide, leading to deleterious concentrations of IL-1. FFA: Free fatty acid IL: Interleukin.

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1 diabetes, accounting for about 90 percent of all cases. The frequency of type 2 diabetes varies greatly within and between countries and is increasing throughout the world. Most patients with type 2 diabetes are adults, often older adults, but it can also occur in children and adolescents. There is a stronger genetic component to type 2 diabetes than to type 1 diabetes. For example, identical twins are much more likely to both develop type 2 diabetes than to both develop type 1 diabetes, and 7 to 14 percent of people whose mother or father has type 2 diabetes will also develop type 2 diabetes this estimate increases to 45 percent if both parents are affected. In addition, it is estimated that about half of the adult Pima Indian population in Arizona has type 2 diabetes, whereas in the entire United States it is estimated that about 10 percent of the population has type 2 diabetes.

Many patients with type 2 diabetes are asymptomatic, and they are often diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when routine measurements reveal high blood glucose concentrations. In some patients the presence of one or more symptoms associated with the long-term complications of diabetes leads to a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Other patients present with symptoms of hyperglycemia that have been present for months or with the sudden onset of symptoms of very severe hyperglycemia and vascular collapse.

Who Is More Likely To Develop Type 2 Diabetes

Autoimmune Diseases: Symptoms and Treatments

You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight. Physical inactivity, race, and certain health problems such as high blood pressure also affect your chance of developing type 2 diabetes. You are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes or had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant. Learn more about risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

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Taxes On Sweetened Drinks: Who Explains How To Make Them An Effective Health Measure

Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages can help countries fight noncommunicable diseases and make people healthier but this measure can be more effective if taxes are developed in collaboration between health and finance authorities.

This is one of the findings from the new WHO report Sugar-sweetened beverage taxes in the WHO European Region, which examines the experience of the 10 Member States who were first in the Region to introduce the measure.

Diabetes And Heart Disease: What’s The Link

Although we don’t know exactly why people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop heart disease, research has found that when high blood glucose levels are not managed well, this can cause damage to the coronary arteries. People with diabetes can also have high levels of insulin that can contribute to the development of fatty deposits or plaque in the arteries.

Coronary artery disease, or hardening of the arteries, is the most common form of heart disease in people with diabetes.

People living with diabetes are also more likely to have conditions related to heart disease such as:

  • high blood pressure.
  • high levels of bad cholesterol and other fats in their blood – which often has no symptoms.
  • low levels of good cholesterol – the cholesterol that helps reduce the risk of heart disease.
  • a thicker left heart ventricle, which can affect how well the heart pumps.

Being overweight is also a risk factor for heart disease.

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